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When I first began my Autism Training for Emergency Responders journey, my presentation focused heavily on children with autism, as that was my personal experience. This, of course, is well needed, but with 50,000 autistic teens transitioning into adults each year (with very few resources to aid that transition), my teaching has expanded immensely. Especially knowing that people with autism are seven times more likely to interact with emergency responders.
I have two teenagers – 13 and 17 – on the autism spectrum. My daily contemplations and challenges have gone from, “Please stop climbing on that thing, we’re going to get thrown out!” to, “Am I providing enough support to teach you the life skills you need as a young adult?”
Additionally, my 13 year-old is seven inches taller than me, has a mustache, and wears men’s large clothing (when he wears clothing at all). Despite his level of comprehension and response in an emergency situation, his size alone would warrant him being treated like an adult on scene, which has the potential to go downhill very quickly.
In 2000, 1 in 166 children were diagnosed with a form of autism. That figure has been climbing ever since, as we are now looking at 1 in 68 (1 in 42 boys). Here in metro Atlanta, that’s one child on every school bus. 1 in 42 boys will grow up to be 1 in 42 men.
You do not “grow out of” autism. Sure, with the right support and tools you can learn coping skills and methods to help improve your day-to-day living. But autism doesn’t magically go away when you turn 21!
The Centers for Disease Control says that the number of adults living with autism is expected to climb by about 700 percent by 2030. From 1990, when adult stats were first taken, the number of adults being diagnosed with autism has nearly tripled.
This does not even include the number of parents who, after receiving an autism diagnosis for their child, came to the realization that they, too, have autism but were never diagnosed.
Recognizing Adults with Autism On Scene
Emergencies are stressful for everyone! An adult with autism may react in ways that appear odd or threatening to a responder. It can be more challenging to identify on scene, and responders can be caught off guard if someone goes from “having it all together” to a complete autism meltdown in a short amount of time.
Remember, we always treat the patient or victim, not the diagnosis. However, here are a few common traits or behaviors that might help you recognize that your patient or victim has autism.
Body language/facial expression challenges. Neurotypical people often easily express themselves, including verbal and non-verbal methods. Adults with autism have significant challenges when it comes to interpretation and displaying types of non-verbal communication. They have trouble maintaining eye contact, interpreting facial expressions, and using motions and gestures. Remember to use direct words that have only one meaning when communicating so there is less chance for misinterpretation.
Sensory Processing challenges. Individuals with autism have either extreme or inefficient sensitivity when it comes to stimuli. While some autistic adults have learned to cope with sensory issues in their daily routines, an emergency situation will involve a ton of new smells, sounds, input, and sights, and they may be unable to process these sensory details adequately. Remember to reduce sensory triggers if at all possible (e.g., turn off lights and sirens, remove unnecessary personnel).
Empathy challenges. Adults with autism struggle with showing shared sensitivity of feelings with others and have difficulty processing others’ perspectives. On scene, this could present as if someone is “cold” or doesn’t care about the outcome of a family member, or sometimes even themselves.
It is typically taught that people with autism are incapable of employing “theory of mind,” or, in other words, unable to imagine anyone else’s thoughts and feelings. Empathy is more complicated than that. There is cognitive empathy, the ability to read other people’s feelings, but there is also affective empathy, the ability to share other people’s feelings. Just because someone with autism may not have the social/cognitive skill to read someone else’s feelings doesn’t mean they can’t feel someone else’s pain. Do not assume that a person’s inability to interpret nonverbal cues means that they don’t care and lack empathy.
Verbal challenges. Up to 40% of adults with autism never learn to speak. If they are verbal, they may have trouble maintaining a conversation, expressing their needs, or processing thoughts appropriately. Remember to look for or provide alternative communication methods if possible (pen and paper, sign language, smart devices).
Uncommon preoccupations. Many people with autism are extremely knowledgeable about certain topics, such as aviation, engineering, word origins, video games, or old movies. They may demonstrate hyper-focus on a particular area of interest, while showing complete disinterest or inability to follow along with other topics. If you are having trouble completing your patient survey or interview, try to engage the person in the topic they are preoccupied with to start the conversation rolling. Once you have gained rapport, you can gradually “fold in” the questions you need answered.
Routine challenges. Routines and rituals are very important to people with autism. They help to maintain order and predictability in their daily lives. This can be a challenge on scene, as most emergencies are not part of a schedule! You may need to swiftly remove someone from a dangerous situation or separate them from their caregiver depending on the emergency. If the scene is safe, allow them to maintain as much of their routine as possible. When you cannot, take a minute first to explain to the person what is about to happen before you act.